Tag Archives: Apple

Manufacturing is not returning to the West

There’s many claims over the last year or so that “manufacturing is returning to the West” and “China’s days as the world’s factory are numbered”{{1}}. These claims are misguided.

[[1]]Vivek Wadhwa (23 July 2012), The End of Chinese Manufacturing and Rebirth of U.S. Industry, Forbes[[1]]

We’ve just reached a time where manual and skilled labour is no longer a major manufacturing cost, causing final assembly to slowly drifting toward the customer base it serves. This shift reduces the length of the supply chain from assembly to your front door resulting in a reduction in turn-around time which, in turn, reduces working capital requirements and allows manufacturers to push product updates through the supply chain faster.

Manufacturing isn’t leaving China and other low cost manufacturing centres. What has changed is that it now makes good sense to manufacture some high value but low volume and bulky products in other major markets, such as the U.S.

The problem with thinking that manufacturing is returning to the first world is the implicit assumption that this also means that the old manufacturing jobs will return. They won’t. They no longer exist. It also ignores that fact that the huge scale of manufacturing in China will help it to grab the lions share of the world manufacturing market for some time to come.

Manufacturing as a manual process

Consider Henry Ford’s assembly line from 1913: a complex, labour intensive process that created a large number of good, blue collar jobs.

566px-Ford_assembly_line_-_1913Source: Public Domain

When we think of manufacturing this is the image we usually have in head. It’s a bit like those train crossing signs that have a caricature of a steam engine on them. It might not be the current reality, but it’s the image we use to understand what’s going on around us.

As transport costs dropped, work moved to lower cost countries

Back in Henry Ford’s day transportation was expensive. Factories were often located close to the markets they served to minimise transport costs, with management struggling to ensure that enough raw materials arrived at the factory to keep it busy. However, the development of railroads, steam ships, and the shipping container network incrementally cut the cost of transport until it cost roughly the same to move a box across the world as it did to move it across the country.

As Marc Levinson points out in his book, The Box{{2}}:

[[2]]Marc Levinson, The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger. iBooks.[[2]]

As transportation costs decline relative to other costs, manufacturers can relocate first domestically, and then internationally, to reduce other costs, which come to loom larger. Globalization, the diffusion of economic activity without regard for national boundaries, is the logical end point of this process. As transport costs fall to extremely low levels, producers move from high-wage to low-wage countries, eventually causing wage levels in all countries to converge. These geographic shifts can occur quickly and suddenly, leaving long-standing industrial infrastructure underutilized or abandoned as economic activity moves on.

This is the shift we’re thinking of when we consider off-shore manufacturing: China as the source of cheap (and fairly unskilled labour).

Today, manufacturing is not a manual process

Apple released an interesting video the other day{{3}}. It shows the manufacturing process for the new Mac Pro.

[[3]]Greg Koenig (22 October 2013), How Apple makes the Mac ProAtomic Delights[[3]]

SourceApple

What’s interesting about this process is how few people are involved.

Manufacturing has changed a lot in the last few decades. What was once dominated by manual labour is now an automated and highly efficient process. Machines have replaced people. We can see this in many of the factories that are returning to the West: they’re all highly efficient, highly automated, capital intensive operations that require very little manual or skilled labour.

7395855880_053e6daede_cSource: Steve Jurvetson

Machines, however, have yet to replace engineers

While capital has won over manual and skilled labour, that same is not true for engineers: knowledge workers.

As Roger Martin found in his research for a recent HBR article{{4}}:

[[4]]Roger L. Martin (October 2013), Rethinking the Decision Factory, Harvard Business Review[[4]]

I vividly remember working with the CEO of one of North America’s largest bread manufacturers in 1990–1991. He had just replaced a labor-intensive and antiquated plant with the most advanced bread bakery on the continent. He proudly told me that the new computerized ovens and packaging machinery had reduced direct labor costs by 60%. But meanwhile, a throng of new and expensive knowledge workers had been added at both the head office and the plant—engineers, computer technicians, and managers—to take care of the sophisticated computer systems and state-of-the-art equipment. The new plant wasn’t quite the unalloyed good that it appeared at first sight. Variable costs of manual labor fell, but the fixed cost of knowledge workers rose, making it critical to keep capacity utilization high—which was possible in some years but not in others.

While the West has been worried about losing it manufacturing capability, many of the off-shore manufacturing destinations have been investing in education. China, for example, now has a huge engineering workforce that companies can draw own to sort out their manufacturing problems.

It’s this incredible ability to mobilise huge workforces that is keeping many manufactures in China. An article in the New York Times from last year has an Apple anecdote that shows this in action{{5}}.

[[5]]Charles Dugigg & Keith Bradsher (21January2012), How the U.S. Lost Out on iPhone Work, The New York Times[[5]]

Another critical advantage for Apple was that China provided engineers at a scale the United States could not match. Apple’s executives had estimated that about 8,700 industrial engineers were needed to oversee and guide the 200,000 assembly-line workers eventually involved in manufacturing iPhones. The company’s analysts had forecast it would take as long as nine months to find that many qualified engineers in the United States.

Moving closer to the customer

The rapid pace of change in today’s market is driving companies to reduce the time between final assembly and when the product drops into the customer’s waiting hands.

Zara is the poster child for this shift, with a supply chain can create a new product and then have it in the stores in around two weeks. Zara has used this ability to disrupt the traditional annual, seasonal fashion cycle, resulting Zara becoming one of the largest retailers in the world.

Apple’s recent decision to make the Mac Pro in the U.S. is part of a trend to move the manufacturing of high value but low volume and bulky products closer to the customer. Elon Musk’s Tesla is also part of this trend.

Manufacturing automation technology has reached the point that it makes more sense to locate the manufacturing of these products closer to the customer, allowing transport costs and delivery times to be minimised.

We shouldn’t assume, however, that this trend will end with manufacturing returning to the West.

It’s easy to forget the more people live in Asia than in the entire rest of the world combined. If manufacturing is moving to be closer to the customer, then we need to remember that there are more customers in Asia than in the rest of the world. China’s position as a manufacturing powerhouse appears safe for the time being.

CK6aONG

Source: valeriepieris

What we mean by “export” is changing

So just where will this trend take us? (And, by extension, will our old export industries return, bringing their jobs back with them?)

The future of manufacturing and export seems – like to many industries – connected to the knowledge economy.

Those old manufacturing jobs are never coming back. They no longer exist. Similarly, thinking in terms of operating a factory and then exporting to another country is also looking somewhat antiquated.

Today (or perhaps, tomorrow) a manufacturer is a simply company that is run from one country and, from there, manages the sale of products in another.

Kogan{{6}} is a great example of this. The business is run from South Melbourne, Australia, which is where the products are designed. The products themselves are made in China and (in many cases) shipped directly to the United Kingdom where they are sold via the company’s UK web site (which is also managed from Port Melbourne, but hosted somewhere “in the cloud”).

[[6]]Kogan @ PEG[[6]]

An even more interesting example is another local business which sells safety barriers that are placed around robots in factories to ensure that workers aren’t accidentally injured. They recently started exporting to Europe. They did this by setting up a small, automated factory in Germany to service the European market. The barriers are designed in Australia and the designs are beamed directly to the machines in Germany, machines that consume resources from all over the globe.

So manufacturing – as we’ve traditionally understood it – is not returning to the West. The blue collar jobs that went overseas are not coming home to give our rather lacklustre economies a boost.

We can also expect China to remain an manufacturing powerhouse for the foreseeable future. The huge scale of operations over there, and the ability to rapidly redeploy these resources, will allow China to grab more than it’s fair share of the world manufacturing market.

Manufacturing, like so many industries{{7}}, is changing, and changing rapidly. What’s most interesting though, is how a new generation of companies are emerging that are finding ways to exploit this situation to “export”, and create new, knowledge intensive jobs at home in the process.

[[7]]The destruction of traditional retail @ PEG[[7]]

Source: Steve Jurvetson

The destruction of traditional retail

Le Bon Marché à Paris (1875)

A steady stream of news stories is trying to convince us that online is killing retail, that online has an unfair advantage and show rooming is evil. There’s some handwaving around omni-channel and claims that that if you sharpen your approach a bit then you will be able to stand out from the online crowd and stay alive, but it’s all a distraction. The problem is that ‘retail’ is just not something we need as much as we used to.

It’s not that we no longer need retail stores. We don’t, however, need as many of them as we have today.

Retail stores serve many purposes, but the most common is to be the last stage in someone else’s supply chain. This role – the retail store that is little more than a convenient place to make a purchase – is dying.

The internet and smartphones mean that we can now shop and purchase when and were we want. We’re no longer forced to pick between the meagre offerings at a nearby store.

Browsing is something we do in a spare moment, sitting in front of the TV with our tablet or via smart phone during our commute on the train. We purchase when we realise that we’ve found something we want or need, where ever we are at the time.

The other uses for local shops and businesses will remain:– community gathering places, restaurants etc. Life for your typical retail store is looking grim though, as they are simply something that we no longer need as much of as we used to.

Continue reading The destruction of traditional retail

David has the edge on Goliath

David returns triumphant with the head of Goliath (Palazzo Ferrari, Genoa)
David returns triumphant with the head of Goliath (Palazzo Ferrari, Genoa)

Is success in business due to luck or hard work? It used to be that if you worked hard and invested astutely in your business that you could expect to be rewarded. Build it and they will come. Times have changed though, and more and more often it seems that all that hard work goes to waste when an unknown (and previously unseen) competitor emerges from nowhere to steal the market from under your nose. Success has become random with the business environment perpetually unstable and in constant flux. The market is hit-driven rather than being based on careful investment. Success now depends on coming up with the right product at the right time, and having a fairly large dose of luck. Business development used to mean investing in your business and building up the assets under its control. Now it means maximising your business’s luck (or minimising the luck of others).

Continue reading David has the edge on Goliath

As retail dies, who will be the winners?

The high street is dying. Retailers are struggling to attract customers to their stores. When they do manage to get them in the retailers worry about the same customers using their smartphones to buy a product they've just picked up from the shelf, from an internet retailer. Retail gurus are telling the high street that they need to make their stores more inviting if they want to continue attracting an ever more fickle public; ensuring that there's accessible parking for baby boomers who don't like walking, QR codes on all the products for smartphone wielding Gen Ys, and so. This ignores the fact that globalisation, the internet and mobile phones have fundamentally changed the way we shop. Consumers haven't just become more fickle, how we go about buying the goods and services we need is in the process of being transformed and any retailer that is little more than the last step in someone else's supply chain has a poor chance of surviving.

Continue reading As retail dies, who will be the winners?

Taking innovation to the edge

Deloitte were kind enough to invite me to present last week at the Melbourne leg of their regular CIO forum. The topic was innovation in IT.

The Innovative CIO: taking the core to the edge

Innovation strikes both dread and elation into the heart of the CIO. How does the CIO embrace and deploy rapid technology changes without falling into the trap of project plans and corporate regulation?

Continue reading Taking innovation to the edge

What recession?

The global financial crisis hit nearly four years ago in 2008 but America and Europe appear to still be stuck in the mud. Even the Asian market has softened. But is this a recession? Or are we seeing a reconfiguration of the economy as the technological seeds laid over the last few generations finally germinated and bear fruit? Prices for made goods are collapsing as the cost of manufacturing has plummeted, while the cost of sourcing and distribution has crashed, caught between globalisation and the Internet. Even innovation, the source of all those sexy new products, has been democratised with the investment required to development new products taking a nosedive. Our existing business models were not designed to thrive, or even survive, this this environment. While the current market is a challenge to navigate, a lot of the problems we're seeing could be result of a collapse of antiquated business models rather than the collapse in demand that these businesses are intended to service.

Continue reading What recession?

You can’t buy innovation

Why is it so hard to incent our companies or teams to do anything innovative? Something tangible that makes a difference to the top or bottom line. The vast majority of innovation programmes seem to deliver little more that some nice demos before the programme peters out, with stakeholders often happy to return to their usual duties. The problem is that innovation is neither a product or a process, nor is it a skill; innovation is an artefact of culture, and culture is something that you cannot buy, hire or implement. The reason that most companies fail to innovate – despite significant investment in innovation – is that innovation is a result of culture and their culture actively prevents them from realising anything innovative.

Innovation (whatever that is1)What is innovation? @ PEG) has become the Mecca for modern business. In today’s turbulent environment everyone is looking for that new idea or product, that innovation, which will give them an edge. Nowhere is this more obvious than the crowded market places for smartphones and mobile applications, where crowds of companies compete to become the next iPhone, Angry Birds or FarmVille. It’s hard to stand out in a crowded market and you need something unique, something innovative to grab the public’s attention.

In their quest for the next big (innovative) thing, management teams engage innovation consultancies, create innovation functions and programmes, and hire the hot new skills which claim to be the next source of innovation. (Yesterday it was portfolio management; today, Design Thinking, next some are claiming that it’s the skills provided by a liberal arts degree.) The hope it that a tangible investment will result in an intangible outcome, as if innovation is something that can be standardised and transformed into a repeatable process. None of these approaches work reliably.

Innovation, of course, extends to more than casual games and mobile phones. Apple seems to have established a track record for innovation across a number of sectors, Amazon has proved itself to be a lot more than a simple web retailer, while 3M has a long history of bringing interesting products to market (PostIt notes, Scotchguard, Goretex…). We’re also seeing success at the bottom end of the market, where companies such as Kogan2)Kogan are finding new (innovative) was to products to waiting customers at a price point radically lower than traditional bricks and mortar retailers.

At the individual level we find the innovator situated in a broader context. The questing of Pablo Picasso, Jimi Hendrix, Laurie Anderson and Miles Davis was woven into and built apon ideas that they found around them as they tried to make sense of the world. Picasso’s desire to draw a picture showing all sides of the subject once built on Cézanne’s abstract shapes and resulted in cubism. Miles Davis wanted to bring the some of the soul from Sly Stone’s work into the world of Jazz, and created fusion and Bitches’ Brew in the process. New work – innovation – is created by cultural accretion, as the artisan pulls in tools, techniques and ideas from the community around them as they search for the best way to express their aspirations. The innovator’s role is to provide the focus, the drive to realise a new idea, that enables these previously disparit threads together. The context that enables them to do this is the culture, the thick soup of ideas that that’s been simmering for generations.

Picasso's Weeping Woman (1937)
Picasso’s Femme en pleurs (1937)

The common thread running through innovators — both businesses and individuals — is cultural. They approach the problem of innovation obliquely, if they approach it at all. Jon Ives, for example, is on record as claiming that Apple “just makes products that we would love to own ourselves”. Innovation is not something discovered, rather than something intentionally designed. “I’ll play it first, and tell you what it is later”, as Miles Davis said. Rather than invest in innovation functions and processes, or hire innovation gurus, and striving to be innovative, they are focused on solving problems. Tools, techniques and skills (such as Design Thinking) are pulled in as needed to solve a problem, instead of being implemented in the hope that they will instil innovation in whatever we’re doing. Sometimes the focus, the drive to realise a new idea, comes from the top-down, as in Apple’s case. Other times it works bottom-up, as with 3M’s more organic approach to innovation that allows individuals to vote with their feet.

Whether organic or structured, innovation is the result of two things. First is a rich and diverse cultural soup full of the ideas and skills that the innovator can draw on. A culture that values the learning and investigation needed to constantly enrich the soup, and one that extends beyond the wall of the organisation or individual to draw on, and appropriate, ideas an needed.

Jim Jarmusch on biting
Jim Jarmusch on biting

Second is the imperative, the desire, to follow through on an idea, to realise an idea or find a more elegant solution to a problem. Sometimes is means providing the time and space to develop and idea, but often it means proving constraints to drive the creative process. These constraints might involve time and money, forcing a team to solve a problem faster or more cheaply than a conventional approach would allow. Or the constraints might be written into the requirements, such as Steve Job’s desire to eliminate all but one button to create a more elegant solution.

The failure of many efforts to instil innovation into existing organisations is that they focus on the tools, and forget that innovation is the result of a culture more than it is a process. Without the drive to try something new, and permission to pull in the ideas and tools are most valuable, any investment in innovation will just result in little more than a bright flash followed by silence. Innovation is not something you can buy. It’s the result of the organisational culture you have create, and culture is the hardest thing to change.

References   [ + ]

1. What is innovation? @ PEG
2. Kogan

Outsourcing in an increasingly complex world

Outsourcing in an increasingly complex worldSometimes posts become a tad to long and unwieldily to drop onto the blog. One such post was a thing I put together around some work I’ve been doing over the last few years on outsourcing. A friend suggested that, rather than letting it languish, it could be interesting to clean it up and publish the result as a (short) ebook; which is what I’ve done.

Find the blurb below, and to can grab the complete text from the iBookstore or Lulu (epub) (Amazon is in the pipeline).

Outsourcing in an increasingly complex world

by Peter Evans-Greenwood

Support independent publishing: Buy this e-book on Lulu.

Pressure on margins is driving organizations to increasingly rationalize and externalize supporting functions as they search for more efficient and flexible delivery approaches.

Most common approaches to outsourcing center on establishing target service levels and a unit cost, treating the negotiation of an outsourcing engagement in a similar fashion to the procurement of other materials that the business needs.

Outsourcing, however, is becoming more complicated as we move functions closer to the heart of the business into the hands of partners and suppliers. This represents a shift from an approach based on paying invoices for the raw materials we need to run the business, to one based on delegating core, business-critical functions to suppliers, and then requiring them to deliver the outcomes that we need.

Crafting a successful outsourcing engagement in this environment requires us to align the supplier’s incentives, and therefore their objectives, with the client’s business drivers. It’s not enough to take a piecemeal approach, imposing additional requirements and constraints in the hope that these will shape supplier behaviour.

It’s a truism that what gets measured is what gets done; outsourcing is no different. Existing approaches to crafting outsourcing agreements attempt to shape supplier behavior by imposing large and inconsistent sets of requirements, with the result that both parties search for loopholes in an attempt to optimize their position.

A successful contract will be based on the customer’s business drivers, aligning supplier incentives with them to ensure that the agreement drives the right behaviors

Death of the shopping mission

When did you last go on a mission to buy something? Something specific that you had decided you needed. Were you looking for a book to read, heading to a nearest bookstore to browse the shelves? Was it a trip to the local big-box store to stock up on toilet paper and other household odds and ends? Or did you wander around a department store at the local mall looking for something to wear? Our behaviour – consumer behaviour – has changed. Shopping has historically been a search problem: how do we find the products we need need? Today, though, we increasingly buy on impulse, selecting the cheapest – or the best at the most competitive price – from the wealth of products and merchants around the global. The shopping mission is going the way of the dodo. If we see a book we like, then we add it to our list at Amazon or Book Depository and it’s delivered direct to our front door. We’re getting household consumables delivered direct to our homes. And we’re even sourcing clothes online where we can find lower prices and a larger selection. Our behaviour is changing, and the retailers and merchants who don’t adapt are being left behind. A lot of the turmoil we’re seeing in the current economy is likely due to a reconfiguration of business, driven by the changes in consumer behaviour.

We used to engage in a shopping mission, a quest to find the goods we need to solve problems that we know we have. This was a journey that would bring us into contact with quirky in-store marketing displays designed to influence our purchasing decision. Product companies tried to build brand awareness, hoping to create a spark of recognition that, when you found yourselves standing in front of the shelves, would tilt you toward selecting their product over the others. Will be it Heinz tomato sauce? The store’s home brand? Or something gourmet from a boutique manufacturer. Merchants worked hard to ensure that they had the best selection of products they could find – the brands that would pull the customers into their store rather then those of the competition.

Standing before the grocery shelf or clothes rack, we would sort through the brands on offer, trying to find the one that we though to be the best value. This roughly translates into selecting the best quality that we could afford. The only products and information at our disposal was what the retailer chose to present us with, unless we were willing to trudge over to another shop so that we could we see what products it had on offer (and what it was willing to tell us about them). The result was usually a compromise: we’d select the best product we could see in front of us, knowing that it was probably neither the cheapest we might find if we kept searching, nor would it be the best we could find. Finding a better solution to our problem – that pair of jeans with a nicer fit, or the tomato sauce with just a hint of something interesting – was too hard.

The world has changed a lot since then. Firstly, globalisation means that it is now possible to reach around the global, conducting an extensive search for the cheapest, or the best (at the most competitive price). This is as simple as typing a few words into Google or visiting you favourite comparison shopping site. Secondly, quality is a solved problem. Twenty years ago that store brand ice-cream or tomato sauce, or the no-name t-shirt, were obviously inferior to the brand name product. Twenty years is a long time, and manufacturing’s relentless focus on quality management over that time means the cheapest product in the market is virtually indistinguishable from the brand names. They were probably even made in the same ingredients or components in the same factory by the same people.

Consumers no longer need to compromise. With little difference between products and the ability to source them from around the globe, many consumers opt for the cheapest they can find from the global market. Nor are consumers who are willing to pay a premium restricted to selecting from the products on offer locally, reaching around the globe find to the exact product they want at the best possible price.

“Price comparisons would be between first and second, or fourth and fifth. What we’re seeing now is a consumer who shops either on price, or on quality – the number one premium, or the retail price point. All the middle brands have gone.”

Sue Morphet, CEO PacBrands1)Speech at the Australian Institute of Company Directors lunch in Brisbane, May 26, 2011.

The balance of power has shifted from retailer to consumer, and the shopping mission is collateral damage. A consumer standing in front of the gaggle of tomato sauces offered by a merchant now has enough information to make an informed decision, and a brand means nothing unless it offers something unique. Consumers are buying the cheapest product, or they are buying the most interesting product (to them). The mass-market brands we grew up with, those labels we trusted because they were reliable, are being demolished, caught in a no man’s land between cheap and premium.2)Eli Greenblat (Aug 30, 2011), Heinz cans Coles, Woolworths, The Sydney Morning Herald

An avid reader wanting a specific book will source it from an online retailer such as Amazon or Book Depository who can offer lower prices and a larger selection, delivered direct to the front door. The time poor professional at the supermarket will often simply pick the cheapest bottle of tomato sauce they can see in front of them, knowing that it will be as good as any of the other. That teenager interested in those green sneakers with black skulls will try on their friends for size and then use an comparison shopping site on the Internet to find the best deal globally. Now that the consumer is in control, and they have the information and services they need at the tip of their smart phone, they are becoming much more impulsive with their approach to buying the goods they want.

The cost of finding the goods and services has plummeted, and consumers are responding by taking a much more opportunistic approach to purchasing. Rather engaging in a search to find goods we need, we’re deciding to buy them impulsively once a need is recognised. Consumers are building relationships with organisations that provide the premium products they desire, or who can be relied on to provide them with the lowest cost items that can be found. Purchases are made opportunistically, built on the shared social connection that has already been established. Customers skip across channels – both real and virtual – learning more about the company’s products and how they can help them. Eventually they realise that there is something they would like, and purchasing is now simply a matter of acknowledging their desire. They might purchase a TV from a company known for bringing cheap but innovative electronics to market, one more focused on putting all the features the customers want into one box, rather than trying to up sell and cross sell. It might be an expensive meal at a restaurant, triggered by the knowledge that a table had just become free for that night. It could the milk man offering to drop off some veg and a steak with the morning milk and bread, guaranteed to arrive before you leave for work. Or it might be that premium computer or tablet with that carefully designed case that you were playing with at your friend’s house.

Retail is reconfiguring, splitting into the cheapest and the best, with a gap appearing the middle. Apple, for example, seems to be the only consumer IT brand still experiencing robust growth and profits,3)Charles Arthur (July 2011), Apple profits up 124% year-on-year after record iPhone sales, The Guardian with the majority of PC manufactures struggling to pull slim margins from a declining market. At the other end of the market, Kogan Technologies is rapidly building a profitable business4)Neha Kale (August 2011), Kogan Technologies reports 100% increase in revenue, PowerRetail around a low cost, direct to consumer model founded on using a community of low cost manufacturers to rapidly create cheap but functional products target at specific consumer needs. Harvey Norman, a traditional bricks-and-morter retailer, is seeing revenue fall and profits slump.5)Anhar Khanbhai, Harvey Norman profits fall 20%, Connected Australia

The new generation of companies – the Apples and Kogans, the Zaras and the explosion of boutique fashion houses – are playing to our new tendency to buy impulsively. They build relationships with their customers, allowing them to skip across channels without purchasing, to reduce the resistance to transacting when the time comes. They avoid sales and regular discounting so tht there’s no reason to hold off a purchase. Some, such as Betabrands, are turning this art into a science, using our desire to be seen as original and our tendency to want to grab bargains when we stumble across them to overcome our reluctance to buy something we can’t touch and feel and accelerate their sales cycle.6)Amy Wallace (October 2010), Whimsy (and clothes) for sale, The New York Times

A chasm is opening up under the traditional mass-market brands, brands that rely on the shopping mission, while companies which can establish themselves at one of the two ends of the spectrum are seeing robust growth. Companies caught in the middle, companies built around the traditional shopping mission are seeing their margins decline and revenues fall, unable to compete. The shopping mission is dying, and it appears that many companies might die with it.


Update:

References   [ + ]

Innovation [2010-11-29]

Another week and another collection of interesting ideas from around the internet.

As always, thoughts and/or comments are greatly appreciated.